Aboriginal regime – Dadu Kingdom

The Dadu Kingdom is a loose tribal alliance. The area governed by around 1645 is mainly the Dadu River Basin today, approximately from the south of Houli in Taichung City on the north bank of Dajia River to Wuxi (Dadu River) Basin. The Netherlands knew in 1638 that the Dadu Kingdom was the regime that ruled the aborigines in central Taiwan. It is a super tribal kingdom composed of 27 villages of the Babula, Maowuhu, Bazehai, Hongya, and Daukas. In the heyday of the domain, the southern end of the domain was approximately to Lukang, and the north to the south of Taoyuan. The kingdom surrendered after the Dutch invaded by force in 1644. In April 1645, the Dutch convened a local meeting in the south. Ganzaih Alamy of the Dadu Kingdom signed a contract with the Dutch East India Company to express surrender, but it was not until the Netherlands in 1662. Until people left Taiwan, Dadu Kingdom remained semi-independent.

Although the Dadu Kingdom was friendly to the Dutch East India Company, it never submitted to the Zheng dynasty and even stubbornly resisted the Zheng army, leading Zheng Chenggong and others to believe that they were instigated by the Netherlands. In 1661, Zheng Chenggong obtained part of the rule of Taiwan. As a result of the implementation of the “combination of soldiers and agriculture” policy, Zheng Jun was sent to various places to farm, infringing on the space of activities of the aboriginal peoples, leading to several armed conflicts between the Zheng Dynasty and the Dadu Kingdom.

After the demise of the Zheng regime, in 1722 (the 61st year of Kangxi), Huang Shuzheng, who served as the official historian of Taiwan, wrote in his book “Taiwan Shichalu”: “The shape of a big belly mountain looks like a high city of hundred pheasants. Fan Chang is named Big Eyebrow.” Although a few words show that there was indeed a super-tribal kingdom in central Taiwan in the 17th century. In 1731 (the ninth year of Yongzheng), the officials of the Qing court assigned too many labors to the aboriginal peoples, which caused the aboriginal peoples to resist, and the Dajiaxi Society resisted the Qing incident. The following year was suppressed, people of all ethnic groups fled their original places and moved to Around Puli, the Dadu Kingdom finally collapsed.

Great Turtle Kingdom

Also in the 17th to 19th centuries, the area south of Mangxi on the Hengchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan and north of Fenggang River (Nanhui Highway) was ruled by the Great Guiwen Kingdom established by Nanpai Bay, also known as the “Great Turtle”. “Wenshe”, “Neiwen Community” or “Lang Qiao Shang Eighteen Society”. The Miscellaneous Record of the Japanese Army Fenggang Camp records: “From the south to Fenggang’s east back, and from Beiyuan to the east, the west is separated from Fenggang, Chutongjiao, Bengshan, and Jialuotang. The border is not opened, and the number of personnel is unknown.” At present, it is known that the most powerful and prosperous period includes 23 tribes and several Han villages. The main ruling class is the two major suzerain boss families. The leader of the kingdom is called the “head of state” (Mazazangiljan), and has Almost all land ownership. In the early period of the Dutch rule, the kingdom had a friendly relationship with the East India Company, and the officials were very courteous to it. Daguiwen was one of the six official languages of the Nanlu local meeting. Even so, the kingdom still passively resisted local meetings most of the time, often being absent by servants or excuses, and the “head of state” only went to participate in 1644. The officials hope that the three main communities of the kingdom can move down the mountain, and the “head of state” has also continued to use excuses to delay.

At the beginning of 1661, due to the long-term conflicts between the kingdom and the Pingpu Macadao tribe and the Han people, the Daguan authorities launched two large-scale conquests against the Daguiwen Kingdom. The statements of the results of the two sides are very different. Dutch documents record the successful capture of Durkeduk, but the oral history of the Paiwan tribe is that the ancestors almost completely wiped out the Dutch army that invaded the Lion’s Head three hundred years ago. Regardless of victory or defeat, this military action may have a very negative political and military impact on the high-ranking officials who were about to face a decisive battle with Zheng Chenggong that year. Until the end of the Qing Dynasty’s rule of Taiwan, Fenggangying’s Miscellaneous Records (1874) recorded that 23 tribes in the territory and Han villages such as Jintongjiaozhuang and Jialuotangzhuang still paid taxes to the kingdom.

In the Peony Society incident in 1874, Japan sent about 3,600 troops to Taiwan to attack the Eighteenth Society of Langqiao (the Kingdom of Skaroo), and the Japanese troops stationed in Fenggang on the North Road. In June, some members of Langqiao Shangshiba Society (Daguiwen Society) returned to the Japanese army. In August, the two villages of Zhutongjiao and Bengshan Han were attacked and requested Japanese protection, and the Japanese troops went to the north to station troops at Zhutongjiao. At the end of that year, the Japanese troops withdrew from Taiwan, the Lionhead tribe took the opportunity to get out of the grass, and then clashes with the Han people broke out. In 1875, Shen Baozheng asked for further discussion. With Tang Dingkui led the Huai army and thousands of Xiangyong, they advanced from Nanshi Lake to the mountains, and after the fierce battle, they broke through Caoshan and Zhukeng. In April, although the Qing army was disturbed by the epidemic, Tang Dingkui personally supervised the army to forcibly attack the Neishitou Society, and Daguiwen sent troops to assist him, but he was defeated in the fall, and the leader’s brother Alabai died in battle. After the Qing army attacked the Waishitou Society, the chief leader led the crowd to surrender, and all the communities were naturalized.

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