Aboriginal regime – Dadu Kingdom

The Dadu Kingdom is a loose tribal alliance. The area governed by around 1645 is mainly the Dadu River Basin today, approximately from the south of Houli in Taichung City on the north bank of Dajia River to Wuxi (Dadu River) Basin. The Netherlands knew in 1638 that the Dadu Kingdom was the regime that ruled the aborigines in central Taiwan. It is a super tribal kingdom composed of 27 villages of the Babula, Maowuhu, Bazehai, Hongya, and Daukas. In the heyday of the domain, the southern end of the domain was approximately to Lukang, and the north to the south of Taoyuan. The kingdom surrendered after the Dutch invaded by force in 1644. In April 1645, the Dutch convened a local meeting in the south. Ganzaih Alamy of the Dadu Kingdom signed a contract with the Dutch East India Company to express surrender, but it was not until the Netherlands in 1662. Until people left Taiwan, Dadu Kingdom remained semi-independent.

Although the Dadu Kingdom was friendly to the Dutch East India Company, it never submitted to the Zheng dynasty and even stubbornly resisted the Zheng army, leading Zheng Chenggong and others to believe that they were instigated by the Netherlands. In 1661, Zheng Chenggong obtained part of the rule of Taiwan. As a result of the implementation of the “combination of soldiers and agriculture” policy, Zheng Jun was sent to various places to farm, infringing on the space of activities of the aboriginal peoples, leading to several armed conflicts between the Zheng Dynasty and the Dadu Kingdom.

After the demise of the Zheng regime, in 1722 (the 61st year of Kangxi), Huang Shuzheng, who served as the official historian of Taiwan, wrote in his book “Taiwan Shichalu”: “The shape of a big belly mountain looks like a high city of hundred pheasants. Fan Chang is named Big Eyebrow.” Although a few words show that there was indeed a super-tribal kingdom in central Taiwan in the 17th century. In 1731 (the ninth year of Yongzheng), the officials of the Qing court assigned too many labors to the aboriginal peoples, which caused the aboriginal peoples to resist, and the Dajiaxi Society resisted the Qing incident. The following year was suppressed, people of all ethnic groups fled their original places and moved to Around Puli, the Dadu Kingdom finally collapsed.

Great Turtle Kingdom

Also in the 17th to 19th centuries, the area south of Mangxi on the Hengchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan and north of Fenggang River (Nanhui Highway) was ruled by the Great Guiwen Kingdom established by Nanpai Bay, also known as the “Great Turtle”. “Wenshe”, “Neiwen Community” or “Lang Qiao Shang Eighteen Society”. The Miscellaneous Record of the Japanese Army Fenggang Camp records: “From the south to Fenggang’s east back, and from Beiyuan to the east, the west is separated from Fenggang, Chutongjiao, Bengshan, and Jialuotang. The border is not opened, and the number of personnel is unknown.” At present, it is known that the most powerful and prosperous period includes 23 tribes and several Han villages. The main ruling class is the two major suzerain boss families. The leader of the kingdom is called the “head of state” (Mazazangiljan), and has Almost all land ownership. In the early period of the Dutch rule, the kingdom had a friendly relationship with the East India Company, and the officials were very courteous to it. Daguiwen was one of the six official languages of the Nanlu local meeting. Even so, the kingdom still passively resisted local meetings most of the time, often being absent by servants or excuses, and the “head of state” only went to participate in 1644. The officials hope that the three main communities of the kingdom can move down the mountain, and the “head of state” has also continued to use excuses to delay.

At the beginning of 1661, due to the long-term conflicts between the kingdom and the Pingpu Macadao tribe and the Han people, the Daguan authorities launched two large-scale conquests against the Daguiwen Kingdom. The statements of the results of the two sides are very different. Dutch documents record the successful capture of Durkeduk, but the oral history of the Paiwan tribe is that the ancestors almost completely wiped out the Dutch army that invaded the Lion’s Head three hundred years ago. Regardless of victory or defeat, this military action may have a very negative political and military impact on the high-ranking officials who were about to face a decisive battle with Zheng Chenggong that year. Until the end of the Qing Dynasty’s rule of Taiwan, Fenggangying’s Miscellaneous Records (1874) recorded that 23 tribes in the territory and Han villages such as Jintongjiaozhuang and Jialuotangzhuang still paid taxes to the kingdom.

In the Peony Society incident in 1874, Japan sent about 3,600 troops to Taiwan to attack the Eighteenth Society of Langqiao (the Kingdom of Skaroo), and the Japanese troops stationed in Fenggang on the North Road. In June, some members of Langqiao Shangshiba Society (Daguiwen Society) returned to the Japanese army. In August, the two villages of Zhutongjiao and Bengshan Han were attacked and requested Japanese protection, and the Japanese troops went to the north to station troops at Zhutongjiao. At the end of that year, the Japanese troops withdrew from Taiwan, the Lionhead tribe took the opportunity to get out of the grass, and then clashes with the Han people broke out. In 1875, Shen Baozheng asked for further discussion. With Tang Dingkui led the Huai army and thousands of Xiangyong, they advanced from Nanshi Lake to the mountains, and after the fierce battle, they broke through Caoshan and Zhukeng. In April, although the Qing army was disturbed by the epidemic, Tang Dingkui personally supervised the army to forcibly attack the Neishitou Society, and Daguiwen sent troops to assist him, but he was defeated in the fall, and the leader’s brother Alabai died in battle. After the Qing army attacked the Waishitou Society, the chief leader led the crowd to surrender, and all the communities were naturalized.

Early Taiwan – Aboriginal History of Taiwan

During the Pleistocene Ice Age, which is 3 million to 10,000 years ago, Taiwan was connected to mainland Asia several times. When the two places are connected, creatures from the mainland and ancient humans may come to settle in Taiwan. The earliest known humans in Taiwan are primitive human skeletons excavated in the Zuozhen district of Tainan City, and they are called Zuozhen people. However, no corresponding culture has been found in Zuozhen area. However, according to the research on the blood components of Taiwanese by Professor Lin Mali, the “Mother of Blood in Taiwan”, the ancestors of Taiwan’s aboriginal people migrated to Taiwan from Southeast Asian islands and other places before the end of the ice age 15,000 years ago. In addition, in the legends of the aborigines of Taiwan, such as the dwarf spirit offerings of the Saixia or the Paiwan tribe, some stories may be about dwarf blacks (Negritos), but so far there is no Relevant archaeological evidence.

After excavating several archaeological sites, it was learned that Taiwan was already inhabited by humans in the late Paleolithic period (50,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago). Based on the available evidence, the earliest culture in Taiwan is the Changbin Culture (the Baxiandong site in Changbin Township, Taitung County is the most representative), and a large number of rough stone tools and bone horns have been excavated. Although the Changbin culture has a certain degree of similarity with the culture of southern China today, based on current archaeological evidence, it is still uncertain which ethnic group of humans left Taiwan’s Paleolithic culture.

Taiwan’s Neolithic and Metal Age cultures are not highly related to Paleolithic cultures. The more famous ones include the Dazukeng Culture and Shisanxing Culture in Bali District, New Taipei City, Yuanshan Culture and Botanical Garden Culture in Taipei Basin, Taiwan Beinan Culture and other sites in East County. Coins and other objects from China have been unearthed in some of these sites, indicating that some cultures may have contact with regions outside Taiwan. It has been confirmed that the prehistoric culture since the Neolithic Age (beginning 5,000 BC) is the legacy of Taiwan’s Austronesian people.

The Japanese scholar Igawa Kozura once stated: “Today, among the various ethnic groups regarded as aboriginals in Taiwan, there is no shortage of oral inheritances that prove the existence of earlier inhabitants. Since prehistoric times, there have been nearly 20 kinds of inhabited ethnic groups on the island. ” In addition, some cultures may be the ancestors of today’s aboriginals. For example, the Shisanxing cultural people may be the ancestors of the Ketagalan tribe. However, the current archaeological evidence cannot completely determine the aborigines of Taiwan and the Neolithic Age Correspondence between cultures.

Taiwan’s aborigines are diverse and complex. The groups officially recognized by the Republic of China’s research classification during the Japanese rule are: Atayal, Saixia, Puyuma, Ami, Paiwan, Bunun, Tsou, 9 tribes including Rukai and Dawu. After the 21st century, the newly recognized ethnic groups include: Thao, Kavalan, Taroko, Sakilaya, Saidiq, Laalwa, Kanakanafu, etc. Most of these 7 ethnic groups live in the mountains and the Rift Valley of the East Coast today, and their cultural characteristics are still clearly identifiable.

In addition to the officially recognized ethnic groups, there are 8 ethnic groups: Ketagalan, Daukas, Bazai, Babura, Maowuzu, Hongya, Silaya and Monkey Etc., mainly from the traditional so-called Pingpu ethnic group. Taiwan’s aborigines had no written language in the past, so they can only infer the early history of the aborigines from ancient records and archaeological evidence written by outsiders. Important historical documents include Xingang Documents, Dongfan Ji, and Xiao The Story of Long City” etc.

Foreign Relations – China Mainland

Scholars have different interpretations of the political relationship between Taiwan and ancient China, but it is uncontroversial that it was included in the Qing Empire after the 23rd year of Kangxi (1684). Before Kangxi, there were dozens to hundreds of indigenous peoples and tribes on this island, which was later called Taiwan. After the 17th century, there were areas under Dutch and Spanish colonial rule. Ancient China first included Taiwan in its territory and actually ruled. It was the Ming Zheng Dongning regime in the Southern Ming Dynasty, and before Kangxi included Taiwan in the territory of the Qing Dynasty, Taiwan was never regarded as a Chinese territory. Taiwan mentioned here does not include the Penghu Islands.

Ancient Chinese history books, including “Three Kingdoms·Wu Zhi”, “Sui Shu·Liu Qiu Zhuan” and “Chen Tong Kao”, are believed to have records that appear to be suspected of Taiwan. For example, “Sui Shu·Liu Qiu Zhuan” records: “Liu Qiu country is in the sea, when Jian’an County is east, the water travels five days to reach.” The People’s Republic of China and some scholars claim that this is evidence of early connections between Taiwan and China. However, some opinions claim that there is no evidence that these documents describe Taiwan among the many islands in the Western Pacific. Some scholars believe that the historical records are the Ryukyu Islands.

Japan

Since the Muromachi period, the Japanese began to call Taiwan as Takasago, Takasago, and Takayama. In the second year of Bunroku in the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1593), Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent an emissary Harada Sunchiro to order the Takayama country to pay tribute, but the emissary failed to return because he could not find anyone who could pass the document to the Takayama country. In the 14th year of Keicho in the Edo period (1609), Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed Harunobu Arima to pay tribute to the land. In the 2nd year of Yuanhe (1616), Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed Nagasaki’s Daikan Murayama to conquer Taiwan, waiting for An’s second son, Murayama Qiu’an to lead two or three thousand people to conquer Taiwan, which was the largest one. It won. In the 18th year of Huan Yong (1641), the national lock-up system was completed, and communication gradually decreased. However, during the Ming and Zheng period, Taiwan and Japan during the lock-up period still maintained considerable trade and political exchanges. The trade volume between Taiwan and Japan reached a peak from 1665 to 1672. See Japanese beggars.

The History of Taiwan

By the way, I’m from Taiwan originally but grew up oversea 😊

I am going to share with the world about the history of my country Taiwan.

Those who have a clear documentary record and can verify the time point can be traced back to three articles written in July 1582 when two Spanish priests and a Portuguese Jesuit were stranded in Taiwan for 75 days due to wind. Taiwan’s letter history began approximately when the Dutch East India Company began its rule in 1624.  However, human activities have already existed in Taiwan before it was recorded in the literature.  The Changbin culture in Taitung 30,000 years ago is the oldest culture in Taiwan known to archaeology, and there are archaeological relics of the Austronesian people in the more recent Neolithic Age.  In fact, Taiwan is also considered to be one of the possible linguistic and genetic birthplaces of the Austronesian peoples due to its location in the northernmost part of the Austronesian language group, and it is also the northernmost of the distribution area.

Taiwan is located between China, Japan and Southeast Asia, and can be used as a berthing and cargo transfer station for ships of various countries.  In the 17th century, there was a super-tribal Dadu Kingdom in central Taiwan, while the Netherlands and Spain colonized the southwest and northwest of Taiwan respectively.  The Dutch expelled the Spanish and ruled most of western Taiwan.  In April 1661, Zheng Chenggong led 25,000 troops and hundreds of warships to besiege the city of Relanzhe, the capital of the Netherlands and Taiwan. The Netherlands signed a surrender on February 1, 1662. Taiwan entered the Ming and Zheng period, during which a large number of Han people emigrated to Taiwan.  In 1683, Ming Zheng Jiangqing general Shi Lang led the Qing army to attack Taiwan, King of Tywan Zheng Keyu surrendered, and Taiwan entered the Qing Dynasty.

In 1894, the Sino-Japanese War between the Qing Dynasty and Japan broke out. The following year, the two sides signed the Shimonoseki Treaty in Shimonoseki, ceding Taiwan to Japan, and Taiwan entered the Japanese rule.

The Second World War ended in 1945, and Japan was defeated.  Japan accepted the Allies’ “Potsdam Declaration” in the “Submission Instrument” and the “Cairo Declaration” in the Potsdam Declaration. The “Cairo Declaration” required Taiwan, Penghu, and Manchuria to be returned to the Republic of China.  On September 2, 1945, Marshal MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, issued the “General Order No. 1”, ordering the Japanese forces in China (except Manchuria), Taiwan and Vietnam north of the 16th latitude to surrender to Jiang Zhongzheng, who represents the Allied Powers.  It also ordered Japan and Japan-controlled military and civilian regimes to assist the Allies in occupying Japan and Japan-controlled areas.  After Chiang Kai-shek appointed General Chen Yi to accept the surrender of the Japanese troops in Taiwan, he then unilaterally announced the restoration of Taiwan.  The United States and the United Kingdom and other allies disagreed with the unilateral announcement of the restoration of sovereignty over Taiwan by the Republic of China, and stated that the handling of Taiwan’s sovereignty must wait for a peace treaty with Japan to be decided.  Japan also stated that the “Submission Instrument” that accepted the “Potsdam Declaration” and “Cairo Declaration” only has the nature of a truce agreement, not the nature of the disposition of territories. It was not until the 1952 “San Francisco Peace Treaty” came into force that Taiwan did not  Leaving Japan.  In the “San Francisco Peace Treaty”, Japan only declared to abandon Taiwan without indicating its ownership. The ownership of Taiwan must be decided by the Allies in the future.

In April 1949, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army crossed the river during the civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, fell. On December 7, the government moved to Taiwan.  Since 1991, citizens of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu have elected all the seats of the Republic of China Congress since 1991; since 1996, the President of the Republic of China has been directly elected.  However, those who believe that the Republic of China is illegal in Taiwan, according to international law, argue that the government of the Republic of China cannot be legalized in Taiwan through elections.  The government of the People’s Republic of China, which has never ruled Taiwan, claims its sovereignty.  In addition, Taiwan’s status in international law is also one of the reasons for sovereignty disputes and the Taiwan independence movement.

Best travel attractions which is called Cijin Island kaohsiung must visit

Cijin Island is a very small island in Kaohsiung Taiwan. Kaohsiung is belong to the Southern area in Taiwan. It is just 15 minutes ferry ride outside the famous Kaohsiung Harbour to the Cijin Island. Although it is a very small Island, this island has become a favorited destination for those people whoever had visiting the city. The island is famous not just only for historical and cultural sites, but also for the fresh seafood around the night market. It really is perfect for any type of travelers; no matter if you are visiting for a hiking trip, sightseeing, cycling, photography etc. Cijin Island has something special for everyone.

Cijin Island is one of those destinations that always has visitors and it is the best tourists attractions in Taiwan, it is because there is so much trip to do in the island. Those who love a good hike usually make their way to the famous Cijin Lighthouse that is located on top of the hills. The hike is not difficult and it is easy to navigate around the trails, so it is very suitable for many people. Cycling around the island is also a preferred activity in Cijin Island; some of the best places that can be explored include the Cijin Windpower Park and the Cijin Seashore Park. Exploring an island is not completely without a dip in the water, and because the water in Cijin is quite warm, many love to relax while soaking their feet or taking a swim by the beach. Lastly, it is also important to try some seafood in the port area of Cijin since it is known to be very fresh.

Which Month and what season of the year will be the best for visit

There is four seasons in Taiwan. They are Winter, Autumn, Spring and Summer. Taiwan season is totally opposite with Australia seasons. For example, When Australia is on Winter, Taiwan is on the Summer season. Many people are wondering that which season would be the best visit Cijin Island. In my personal experience, the best time to visit Cijin Island would be between September and February of the years. That would be when the summer about to end. It is because Summer is the season of raining which is not able to explore much on the island while raining so it is very best to visit between September and February which was Autumn, Winter and Spring season. I am not recommended to visit between June and August as the weather is too heat with raining. You may wondering that why Winter would be good to visit. Well, Kaohsiung won’t be freezing during the winter. It is totally different with Taipei City.

Please note that during the summer seasons, the ocean wave is pretty strong due to the weather

Introduction of the Cijin Lighthouse

Lighthouse

According to the photo taken above, it is taken from the Lighthouse in the Cijin Island. Aside from the scenery, Cijin is also famous for its historical sites, including the Cijin Lighthouse and the Cijin Fort. In 1883, British engineers built the Cijin Lighthouse, which was used for the military during their conflicts with France. The lighthouse went through several reconstructions during the Japanese colonisation, and it is now open to the public. The Cijin Fort is also a historical site in the island that must be on the itinerary. The fort was originally built in 1720 and has witnessed quite a lot during its time. Since it was destroyed in the war, the fort was reconstructed in 1991 and is now one of the most famous attractions in Cijin Island that offers a magnificent 360 view.

The History of Dr. James Laidlaw Maxwell Monument in the Cijin

Basically James Laidlaw Maxwell Senior Chinese name called 馬雅各 and he was born on 18 March 1836 in Scotland. March 1921 was the first Presbyterian Missionary to Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan). He served with the English Presbyterian Mission.

Maxwell studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and completed his degree in year 1858 with a graduation thesis of The Chemistry and Physiology of the Spleen. He worked in London at Brompton Hospital and at the Birmingham General Hospital. He was an elder in the Broad Street Presbyterian Church before being sent to Taiwan by the Presbyterian Church of England (now within the United Reformed Church) in 1864. He donated a small printing press to the church which was later used to print the Taiwan Church News.

On 16 June 1865, at the urging of missionaries H.L. Mackenzie and Carstairs Douglas, he established the first Presbyterian church in Taiwan, this date now celebrated by the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan as its anniversary. First of his mission centred in the then-capital Taiwan Fu (now Tainan city); in 1868 he moved near Cijin and now part of Kaohsiung where his work place, both medical and missionary, became more welcomed. In early 1872 he advised Canadian Presbyterian missionary pioneer George Leslie Mackay to start his work in northern Taiwan, near Tamsui.

He married with Mary Anne Goodall who died on January 1918 of Handsworth on 7 April 1868 in HongKong. They had two sons, John Preston and James Laidlaw Jnr, both of whom later also became medical missionaries. He retired in London in 1885 where he formed and became the first secretary of the Medical Missionary Association. He and his sons oversaw the construction of Sin-Lau Hospital in Tainan, the first western-style hospital in Taiwan. The younger J. L. Maxwell served in the Tainan hospital from 1900 to 1923, during Taiwan’s Japanese Era.

How to travel down to the Cijin Island

How to travel down to the Cijin Island? Well, this would be depending on where will you be coming down from. Firstly, getting to the Cijin Island from Kaohsiung City is very easy. Just take the MRT orange line and get off at Sizihwan MRT Station. From there, just head to the harbour and take Cijin Ferry; instructions from the MRT station to the harbour are available around the streets and it will take about 10 minutes to get there on foot. The cost to the Cijin Ferry is roughly NT$15 (approximately 0.50 USD) and the journey is around 15 minutes. Travelers can take a bike on the ferry so if you prefer to rent a bike in Sizihwan, so it wouldn’t be an issue.

But if you are drive, you wouldn’t need to worry about the ferry and you can explore much more surround the island by car.

For instances, when traveling to Kaohsiung, do saving a day for Cijin Island is a definitely a no-brainer. This island offers varieties of activities and sights for many types of travelers, starting from hiking, cycling, sightseeing, to eating. How can anyone say not to that? So, if you are planning to travel in Taiwan and looking for something to do in Kaohsiung, be sure to take a day trip to Cijin Island. You won’t feel regret to visit as it is worth of travelling. #vacation #dream #summer #Cijinisland

Hope you enjoy your vacation when you get there one day. Stay tuned for my next post 🙂

Hiking Elephants Mountain Taipei

Hiking Elephant Mountain 


This is red MRT line


Are you a hiking lover? Do you love hiking? Taiwan is the best country for hiking. Hiking is very good exercise in life. There is lot of best hiking attractions for tourists in Taiwan. One of them is called Hiking Elephants Mountain. It is the best destination for hiking. While hiking, you could see the beautiful viewing of the heart of Taipei from the top which is pretty cool. I am going to share this fun moment with human beings. Hope you will like it just i do.

Basically, I was taking the MRT red line from Da’ an MRT station to the XiangShan MRT Station. Hiking Elephants Mountain is one of the top tourist attractions in Taipei Taiwan. It is 183m high and has a hiking trail about 1.5km long. The taipei 101 can be seen from the trail. The six Giant Rocks are a tourist attraction in XiangShan. There are so many people haven’t know about this attractions and I am going to give more fun of my experience now. It is scary but perfect view of the Taipei City which is great. it is free of charge so there is no fee needed. 

Xiangshan Hiking Trail

XiangShan Hiking Trail is the most painful experience but it is worth to go have this kind of experience. It is very convenient to go for a visit by MRT train line. The best time to visit Hiking Trail Mountain is between March and November. When you encounter raining season or earthquake season, please do skip this attraction for safety purposes. Especially is raining season, it is very slip on the stairs so it is very dangerous to walk up the hills when there is raining. Therefore, I had heard that weekends get pretty packed so you should avoid visit this place on the weekends


According to this photo shown above, I have taken from the mountain stones. It is the best place for viewing the whole Taipei. Weekdays always the best for hike. 

I went there alone and it took me for 10 minute walk from the MRT station, also 30 minutes from the bottom to the top of the hills. Some people may feel tiring and need a break middle of hiking, the whole experience could take it for minimum 1.5 hours, this will depend on how busy will be on that day and how fast you hiking from the bottom to the top. Sometimes take very long when you are waiting on queue for the perfect photoshoot. Although night time is perfect for visit but it is not safe to hiking at night as it is very dark and hardly to see. 

You may ask yourself about how hard is the hike? It is not too hard. Like what I have mentioned above, it take me for 30 minutes from the bottom to the top of the hill and I did have a quick break when I was on my way. I do recommended to bring your water bottle, a towel as well as your camera of course, other than that it’s pretty basic. 

The first stop is a viewing platform after about 10 minutes, then there is a selection of boulders that people climb all over for epic pictures. Ultimately, 1 minutes beyond the boulders is the main viewing platform where all the pro-photographers lineup each day! 

I heard people said hiking before sunset and watching the change is one awesome option if you have time to spare, other than that you could do the hike twice, once in a morning and once in an evening. 

How to get to Elephant Mountain hiking trail?

When you hear about a ‘hike’ you assume it’ll take you all day. Getting there, hiking, finding the top etc, thats not the case with Elephant Mountain Taipei! If you’re staying elsewhere in the city, jump on the MRT subway system and head to Xiangshan, it is the last stop on the red line. Walk out exit 2, and follow your google map. It’s really easy to find so shouldn’t an issues. 

All-in-all it’s an awesome activity, and even adds a little bit of exercise to your day. I have great memories of my time hiking the Elephant Mountain Taipei and I hope you guys ensure you get to experience in your time there too, you won’t regret the effort, even if it is a little hot and humid! And don’t worry, it’s honestly not too difficult. Even if you’re out of shape, you can take your time and still be rewarded with the best views of the city. Enjoy! #Vacation #Winter