Early Taiwan – Aboriginal History of Taiwan

During the Pleistocene Ice Age, which is 3 million to 10,000 years ago, Taiwan was connected to mainland Asia several times. When the two places are connected, creatures from the mainland and ancient humans may come to settle in Taiwan. The earliest known humans in Taiwan are primitive human skeletons excavated in the Zuozhen district of Tainan City, and they are called Zuozhen people. However, no corresponding culture has been found in Zuozhen area. However, according to the research on the blood components of Taiwanese by Professor Lin Mali, the “Mother of Blood in Taiwan”, the ancestors of Taiwan’s aboriginal people migrated to Taiwan from Southeast Asian islands and other places before the end of the ice age 15,000 years ago. In addition, in the legends of the aborigines of Taiwan, such as the dwarf spirit offerings of the Saixia or the Paiwan tribe, some stories may be about dwarf blacks (Negritos), but so far there is no Relevant archaeological evidence.

After excavating several archaeological sites, it was learned that Taiwan was already inhabited by humans in the late Paleolithic period (50,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago). Based on the available evidence, the earliest culture in Taiwan is the Changbin Culture (the Baxiandong site in Changbin Township, Taitung County is the most representative), and a large number of rough stone tools and bone horns have been excavated. Although the Changbin culture has a certain degree of similarity with the culture of southern China today, based on current archaeological evidence, it is still uncertain which ethnic group of humans left Taiwan’s Paleolithic culture.

Taiwan’s Neolithic and Metal Age cultures are not highly related to Paleolithic cultures. The more famous ones include the Dazukeng Culture and Shisanxing Culture in Bali District, New Taipei City, Yuanshan Culture and Botanical Garden Culture in Taipei Basin, Taiwan Beinan Culture and other sites in East County. Coins and other objects from China have been unearthed in some of these sites, indicating that some cultures may have contact with regions outside Taiwan. It has been confirmed that the prehistoric culture since the Neolithic Age (beginning 5,000 BC) is the legacy of Taiwan’s Austronesian people.

The Japanese scholar Igawa Kozura once stated: “Today, among the various ethnic groups regarded as aboriginals in Taiwan, there is no shortage of oral inheritances that prove the existence of earlier inhabitants. Since prehistoric times, there have been nearly 20 kinds of inhabited ethnic groups on the island. ” In addition, some cultures may be the ancestors of today’s aboriginals. For example, the Shisanxing cultural people may be the ancestors of the Ketagalan tribe. However, the current archaeological evidence cannot completely determine the aborigines of Taiwan and the Neolithic Age Correspondence between cultures.

Taiwan’s aborigines are diverse and complex. The groups officially recognized by the Republic of China’s research classification during the Japanese rule are: Atayal, Saixia, Puyuma, Ami, Paiwan, Bunun, Tsou, 9 tribes including Rukai and Dawu. After the 21st century, the newly recognized ethnic groups include: Thao, Kavalan, Taroko, Sakilaya, Saidiq, Laalwa, Kanakanafu, etc. Most of these 7 ethnic groups live in the mountains and the Rift Valley of the East Coast today, and their cultural characteristics are still clearly identifiable.

In addition to the officially recognized ethnic groups, there are 8 ethnic groups: Ketagalan, Daukas, Bazai, Babura, Maowuzu, Hongya, Silaya and Monkey Etc., mainly from the traditional so-called Pingpu ethnic group. Taiwan’s aborigines had no written language in the past, so they can only infer the early history of the aborigines from ancient records and archaeological evidence written by outsiders. Important historical documents include Xingang Documents, Dongfan Ji, and Xiao The Story of Long City” etc.

Foreign Relations – China Mainland

Scholars have different interpretations of the political relationship between Taiwan and ancient China, but it is uncontroversial that it was included in the Qing Empire after the 23rd year of Kangxi (1684). Before Kangxi, there were dozens to hundreds of indigenous peoples and tribes on this island, which was later called Taiwan. After the 17th century, there were areas under Dutch and Spanish colonial rule. Ancient China first included Taiwan in its territory and actually ruled. It was the Ming Zheng Dongning regime in the Southern Ming Dynasty, and before Kangxi included Taiwan in the territory of the Qing Dynasty, Taiwan was never regarded as a Chinese territory. Taiwan mentioned here does not include the Penghu Islands.

Ancient Chinese history books, including “Three Kingdoms·Wu Zhi”, “Sui Shu·Liu Qiu Zhuan” and “Chen Tong Kao”, are believed to have records that appear to be suspected of Taiwan. For example, “Sui Shu·Liu Qiu Zhuan” records: “Liu Qiu country is in the sea, when Jian’an County is east, the water travels five days to reach.” The People’s Republic of China and some scholars claim that this is evidence of early connections between Taiwan and China. However, some opinions claim that there is no evidence that these documents describe Taiwan among the many islands in the Western Pacific. Some scholars believe that the historical records are the Ryukyu Islands.

Japan

Since the Muromachi period, the Japanese began to call Taiwan as Takasago, Takasago, and Takayama. In the second year of Bunroku in the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1593), Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent an emissary Harada Sunchiro to order the Takayama country to pay tribute, but the emissary failed to return because he could not find anyone who could pass the document to the Takayama country. In the 14th year of Keicho in the Edo period (1609), Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed Harunobu Arima to pay tribute to the land. In the 2nd year of Yuanhe (1616), Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed Nagasaki’s Daikan Murayama to conquer Taiwan, waiting for An’s second son, Murayama Qiu’an to lead two or three thousand people to conquer Taiwan, which was the largest one. It won. In the 18th year of Huan Yong (1641), the national lock-up system was completed, and communication gradually decreased. However, during the Ming and Zheng period, Taiwan and Japan during the lock-up period still maintained considerable trade and political exchanges. The trade volume between Taiwan and Japan reached a peak from 1665 to 1672. See Japanese beggars.

The History of Taiwan

By the way, I’m from Taiwan originally but grew up oversea 😊

I am going to share with the world about the history of my country Taiwan.

Those who have a clear documentary record and can verify the time point can be traced back to three articles written in July 1582 when two Spanish priests and a Portuguese Jesuit were stranded in Taiwan for 75 days due to wind. Taiwan’s letter history began approximately when the Dutch East India Company began its rule in 1624.  However, human activities have already existed in Taiwan before it was recorded in the literature.  The Changbin culture in Taitung 30,000 years ago is the oldest culture in Taiwan known to archaeology, and there are archaeological relics of the Austronesian people in the more recent Neolithic Age.  In fact, Taiwan is also considered to be one of the possible linguistic and genetic birthplaces of the Austronesian peoples due to its location in the northernmost part of the Austronesian language group, and it is also the northernmost of the distribution area.

Taiwan is located between China, Japan and Southeast Asia, and can be used as a berthing and cargo transfer station for ships of various countries.  In the 17th century, there was a super-tribal Dadu Kingdom in central Taiwan, while the Netherlands and Spain colonized the southwest and northwest of Taiwan respectively.  The Dutch expelled the Spanish and ruled most of western Taiwan.  In April 1661, Zheng Chenggong led 25,000 troops and hundreds of warships to besiege the city of Relanzhe, the capital of the Netherlands and Taiwan. The Netherlands signed a surrender on February 1, 1662. Taiwan entered the Ming and Zheng period, during which a large number of Han people emigrated to Taiwan.  In 1683, Ming Zheng Jiangqing general Shi Lang led the Qing army to attack Taiwan, King of Tywan Zheng Keyu surrendered, and Taiwan entered the Qing Dynasty.

In 1894, the Sino-Japanese War between the Qing Dynasty and Japan broke out. The following year, the two sides signed the Shimonoseki Treaty in Shimonoseki, ceding Taiwan to Japan, and Taiwan entered the Japanese rule.

The Second World War ended in 1945, and Japan was defeated.  Japan accepted the Allies’ “Potsdam Declaration” in the “Submission Instrument” and the “Cairo Declaration” in the Potsdam Declaration. The “Cairo Declaration” required Taiwan, Penghu, and Manchuria to be returned to the Republic of China.  On September 2, 1945, Marshal MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, issued the “General Order No. 1”, ordering the Japanese forces in China (except Manchuria), Taiwan and Vietnam north of the 16th latitude to surrender to Jiang Zhongzheng, who represents the Allied Powers.  It also ordered Japan and Japan-controlled military and civilian regimes to assist the Allies in occupying Japan and Japan-controlled areas.  After Chiang Kai-shek appointed General Chen Yi to accept the surrender of the Japanese troops in Taiwan, he then unilaterally announced the restoration of Taiwan.  The United States and the United Kingdom and other allies disagreed with the unilateral announcement of the restoration of sovereignty over Taiwan by the Republic of China, and stated that the handling of Taiwan’s sovereignty must wait for a peace treaty with Japan to be decided.  Japan also stated that the “Submission Instrument” that accepted the “Potsdam Declaration” and “Cairo Declaration” only has the nature of a truce agreement, not the nature of the disposition of territories. It was not until the 1952 “San Francisco Peace Treaty” came into force that Taiwan did not  Leaving Japan.  In the “San Francisco Peace Treaty”, Japan only declared to abandon Taiwan without indicating its ownership. The ownership of Taiwan must be decided by the Allies in the future.

In April 1949, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army crossed the river during the civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, fell. On December 7, the government moved to Taiwan.  Since 1991, citizens of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu have elected all the seats of the Republic of China Congress since 1991; since 1996, the President of the Republic of China has been directly elected.  However, those who believe that the Republic of China is illegal in Taiwan, according to international law, argue that the government of the Republic of China cannot be legalized in Taiwan through elections.  The government of the People’s Republic of China, which has never ruled Taiwan, claims its sovereignty.  In addition, Taiwan’s status in international law is also one of the reasons for sovereignty disputes and the Taiwan independence movement.

台北象山步道之旅

您是爬山愛好者嗎? 你喜歡爬山嗎? 台灣是爬山的最佳國家。 爬山是生活中非常好的運動。 台灣有許多最佳的遠足景點。 其中之一被稱為爬山大象山。 這是爬山的最佳目的地。 爬山時,您可以從頂部看到台北市中心的美麗景色,這很酷的喔。 我將與人類分享這個有趣的時刻。 希望你會喜歡喔。有興趣的朋友們,請覌看,也可以關注我喔!


歡迎來到台北象山步道

今天要和大家介紹台北一個最好的景點名叫象山步道。來到象山,主要是登山啦! 登上象山之後,如果你的體力充沛,或是想伸展筋骨,步道兩旁還有許多強體力及肺活量的體能設施,只見大夥在山頂的逸賢亭打個尖、做個操,還有精力無窮的小朋友穿梭其間,運動休閒一兼二顧,很適合全家來活動。

象山因外形似象頭而得名,位於台北盆地東南方的信義區,與虎山地質相同主要由砂岩組成,因造山作用步道中可見黃褐色陡峭的岩壁與巨石,加上自然環境生物、鳥類種類繁多,使得整座山如同一座天然生態樂園般,成為民眾接近淺山、享受戶外綠林悠閒時光的好去處。

步道沿線設有解說牌引導民眾參訪,區內各種稜線、岩壁、山坡等不同環境,孕育出多種蕨類植物處處可見,其中又以金狗毛蕨與筆筒樹古老蕨類族群最大,數量居臺北市之冠。

登頂象山眺望,臺北盆地的地景幾乎一覽無遺,其尾稜延伸嵌入信義區中強公園,成為當地居民晨昏散步的最佳去處,也是近山民眾假日休閒、舒緩身心的綠色地帶。

基本上,我是從大安捷運站乘坐紅線到象山捷運站。爬山象山是台灣台北市的頂級旅遊景點之一。 它的高度大約 183m,遠足徑長約 1.5km。 從小徑可以看到台北101是满享受的。 六座巨石是湘山的旅遊勝地。 有太多人對此景點一無所知,現在我將給我更多的樂趣。 台北市的風景真是恐怖而完美。 它是免費的,因此不需要任何費用。

象山遠足徑

象山遠足徑是最痛苦的經歷,但是值得擁有這種經歷。 乘坐捷運火車去旅遊非常方便。 遠足遠足山的最佳時間是三月至十一月。 當遇到雨季或地震季節時,出於安全考慮,請不要跳過此景點。 尤其是在下雨季節,樓梯上非常容易打滑,因此下雨時走上山坡非常危險。 因此,我聽說周末人滿為患,所以您應該避免在周末訪問這個地方。

六巨石

根據上面顯示的這張照片,我是從山石上拍攝的。 這是觀看整個台北的最佳地點。 平日總是最適合遠足。

我一個人去那裡,從地鐵站步行了10分鐘,從山頂到山頂也花了30分鐘。 有些人可能會感到疲勞,需要在徒步旅行中稍作休息,整個體驗可能需要至少1.5個小時,這取決於當天的忙碌程度以及從底部到頂部的遠足速度。 當您在排隊等待完美的拍攝圖像時,有時會花費很長時間。 儘管夜間是遊覽的理想之地,但由於夜色非常暗且幾乎看不到,因此夜間徒步旅行並不安全。

您可能會問自己加息有多困難? 其實不太難的。 就像我上面提到的,從山頂到山頂花了30分鐘,在旅途中我確實休息了很長時間。 我建議您帶上水瓶,毛巾和相機,當然這是非常基本的。

象山範圍不大,賞景點卻不少。其中盤踞山頭的「六巨石」是象山的地標景觀,巨石林立、景觀奇特,遊象山不攀上巨石瞧瞧,可就對不起自己了。在頂上觀景滋味不同,迎風四望無際,想拍101,來這裡準沒錯!

至於鳥瞰台北盆地的最佳位置,自然是位於稜線上、視野開闊的「超然亭」;有此「超然」名號,便是因為由此觀景居象山眾涼亭之冠。站立於超然亭的平台上,近可見山下的信義計畫區,放遠望去則是圓山、北投焚化爐、觀音山及大屯火山群各景點,從前國慶日施放煙火,不少人還會特地來此觀賞花火綻放,足見其魅力所在。

繞行到巨石公園階梯附近,有一塊碩大的巨石,上面有人為雕刻出來的石階,可拾級而上眺望台北盆地。一路前行間,由左側山腰、山脊再下到右側山腰線,從不同角度俯瞰台北盆地之美,象山迷人之處盡在其中。

步道沿途都設有解說牌,引導親山訪客認識整個山頭的特色,所以這裡也是最受歡迎的自然教室。一路上不愁沒有生態導覽,只要「按圖索驥」,自己就是山林解說員。

象山擁有稜線、岩壁、山坡、山窪、山谷等各種不同微環境,因而孕育出70多種蕨類。蕨類在象山處處可見,有的附著在樹幹上,有的長在岩石、坡地上,有的密佈在潮濕的林下。其中金狗毛蕨族群龐大,數量居臺北市之冠,在過去醫藥不發達的年代,它可是民間用來止血的最佳良藥。

另外在開闊、向陽且潮濕山窪區,還有自侏儸紀時期就存在的古老蕨類「筆筒樹」。筆筒樹群聚可是台北市區最珍貴的生態特色,因為筆筒樹成群林立的現象,全世界只有台灣北部才能看得到。

潮濕的環境中,蝸牛的族群也十分可觀,像是斯文豪氏大蝸牛、煙管蝸牛,幾乎在整個山區都看得到。這本是低海拔的原始闊葉林,生態豐富多元,綠意萬千的山林,還有更多的驚喜等待你自己慢慢去發掘呢!

第一站是大約10分鐘後的觀景台,然後有各種各樣的巨石供人們四處攀爬以拍攝史詩般的照片。 最終,在巨石之上1分鐘是主要的觀景台,每天所有專業攝影師在此觀看比賽!

我聽說人們說如果您有時間可以在日落之前遠足,然後看一下變化是一個很棒的選擇,除了您可以兩次遠足,一次是早晨,一次是晚上。

怎麼去象山遠足徑?

當您聽到 “遠足” 的消息時,您會以為它會整天陪伴您。 到達那裡,徒步旅行,尋找山頂等,台北象山不是這種情況! 如果您住在城市的其他地方,請搭乘捷運地鐵系統並前往象山,這是紅線上的最後一站。 走出2號出口,然後遵循您的 Google 地圖。 真的很容易找到,所以應該沒有什麼大問題喲。

總而言之,這是一項了不起的活動,甚至為您的一天增加了一點運動。 我在台北象山徒步旅行的時光記憶猶新,希望你們也能在那兒度過愉快的時光,即使天氣有點濕熱,您也不會後悔! 不用擔心,說實話這也不算困難。 即使您身體狀況不佳,也可以抽出寶貴的時間來欣賞這座城市的美景。 請享用!  #假期#冬季

Best travel attractions which is called Cijin Island kaohsiung must visit

Cijin Island is a very small island in Kaohsiung Taiwan. Kaohsiung is belong to the Southern area in Taiwan. It is just 15 minutes ferry ride outside the famous Kaohsiung Harbour to the Cijin Island. Although it is a very small Island, this island has become a favorited destination for those people whoever had visiting the city. The island is famous not just only for historical and cultural sites, but also for the fresh seafood around the night market. It really is perfect for any type of travelers; no matter if you are visiting for a hiking trip, sightseeing, cycling, photography etc. Cijin Island has something special for everyone.

Cijin Island is one of those destinations that always has visitors and it is the best tourists attractions in Taiwan, it is because there is so much trip to do in the island. Those who love a good hike usually make their way to the famous Cijin Lighthouse that is located on top of the hills. The hike is not difficult and it is easy to navigate around the trails, so it is very suitable for many people. Cycling around the island is also a preferred activity in Cijin Island; some of the best places that can be explored include the Cijin Windpower Park and the Cijin Seashore Park. Exploring an island is not completely without a dip in the water, and because the water in Cijin is quite warm, many love to relax while soaking their feet or taking a swim by the beach. Lastly, it is also important to try some seafood in the port area of Cijin since it is known to be very fresh.

Which Month and what season of the year will be the best for visit

There is four seasons in Taiwan. They are Winter, Autumn, Spring and Summer. Taiwan season is totally opposite with Australia seasons. For example, When Australia is on Winter, Taiwan is on the Summer season. Many people are wondering that which season would be the best visit Cijin Island. In my personal experience, the best time to visit Cijin Island would be between September and February of the years. That would be when the summer about to end. It is because Summer is the season of raining which is not able to explore much on the island while raining so it is very best to visit between September and February which was Autumn, Winter and Spring season. I am not recommended to visit between June and August as the weather is too heat with raining. You may wondering that why Winter would be good to visit. Well, Kaohsiung won’t be freezing during the winter. It is totally different with Taipei City.

Please note that during the summer seasons, the ocean wave is pretty strong due to the weather

Introduction of the Cijin Lighthouse

Lighthouse

According to the photo taken above, it is taken from the Lighthouse in the Cijin Island. Aside from the scenery, Cijin is also famous for its historical sites, including the Cijin Lighthouse and the Cijin Fort. In 1883, British engineers built the Cijin Lighthouse, which was used for the military during their conflicts with France. The lighthouse went through several reconstructions during the Japanese colonisation, and it is now open to the public. The Cijin Fort is also a historical site in the island that must be on the itinerary. The fort was originally built in 1720 and has witnessed quite a lot during its time. Since it was destroyed in the war, the fort was reconstructed in 1991 and is now one of the most famous attractions in Cijin Island that offers a magnificent 360 view.

The History of Dr. James Laidlaw Maxwell Monument in the Cijin

Basically James Laidlaw Maxwell Senior Chinese name called 馬雅各 and he was born on 18 March 1836 in Scotland. March 1921 was the first Presbyterian Missionary to Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan). He served with the English Presbyterian Mission.

Maxwell studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and completed his degree in year 1858 with a graduation thesis of The Chemistry and Physiology of the Spleen. He worked in London at Brompton Hospital and at the Birmingham General Hospital. He was an elder in the Broad Street Presbyterian Church before being sent to Taiwan by the Presbyterian Church of England (now within the United Reformed Church) in 1864. He donated a small printing press to the church which was later used to print the Taiwan Church News.

On 16 June 1865, at the urging of missionaries H.L. Mackenzie and Carstairs Douglas, he established the first Presbyterian church in Taiwan, this date now celebrated by the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan as its anniversary. First of his mission centred in the then-capital Taiwan Fu (now Tainan city); in 1868 he moved near Cijin and now part of Kaohsiung where his work place, both medical and missionary, became more welcomed. In early 1872 he advised Canadian Presbyterian missionary pioneer George Leslie Mackay to start his work in northern Taiwan, near Tamsui.

He married with Mary Anne Goodall who died on January 1918 of Handsworth on 7 April 1868 in HongKong. They had two sons, John Preston and James Laidlaw Jnr, both of whom later also became medical missionaries. He retired in London in 1885 where he formed and became the first secretary of the Medical Missionary Association. He and his sons oversaw the construction of Sin-Lau Hospital in Tainan, the first western-style hospital in Taiwan. The younger J. L. Maxwell served in the Tainan hospital from 1900 to 1923, during Taiwan’s Japanese Era.

How to travel down to the Cijin Island

How to travel down to the Cijin Island? Well, this would be depending on where will you be coming down from. Firstly, getting to the Cijin Island from Kaohsiung City is very easy. Just take the MRT orange line and get off at Sizihwan MRT Station. From there, just head to the harbour and take Cijin Ferry; instructions from the MRT station to the harbour are available around the streets and it will take about 10 minutes to get there on foot. The cost to the Cijin Ferry is roughly NT$15 (approximately 0.50 USD) and the journey is around 15 minutes. Travelers can take a bike on the ferry so if you prefer to rent a bike in Sizihwan, so it wouldn’t be an issue.

But if you are drive, you wouldn’t need to worry about the ferry and you can explore much more surround the island by car.

For instances, when traveling to Kaohsiung, do saving a day for Cijin Island is a definitely a no-brainer. This island offers varieties of activities and sights for many types of travelers, starting from hiking, cycling, sightseeing, to eating. How can anyone say not to that? So, if you are planning to travel in Taiwan and looking for something to do in Kaohsiung, be sure to take a day trip to Cijin Island. You won’t feel regret to visit as it is worth of travelling. #vacation #dream #summer #Cijinisland

Hope you enjoy your vacation when you get there one day. Stay tuned for my next post 🙂